Although the scale is not validated, it serves as a necessary tool to judge participants' present and future view of the training. The finding that a majority of our participants had assumed to be in the experimental condition, may support this notion. No training-specific improvements were detected, and we did not find evidence of additional benefits of individual characteristics. Before training, the three training groups did not differ in gender, level of education, TICS score, age, or computer experience (all p's > 0.26), as expected after minimization (see Table 1). Generally, casual games or games comprised of short mathematical- or memory activities are rated as most enjoyable and lead to higher compliance and beliefs about enhancement (Nap et al., 2009; Boot et al., 2013a). In our case, as all three conditions received a certain amount of social stimulation, this might have led to increased motivation to perform well on the post-training measurements. J. Exp. In our experimental design, however, we could not disentangle training effects fro… Mot. Psychol. Reading. Protecting cognition from aging and Alzheimer's disease: a computerized cognitive training combined with reminiscence therapy. On task switching, all three groups significantly improved their scores over Time, but a Time * Group interaction did not reach significance. Rogers, R. D., and Monsell, S. (1995). doi: 10.1177/1745691616635612, Milner, B. 2020 Jul 24;11:722. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2020.00722. NIH The aim of the current study was to investigate to what extent children’s potential for learning is related to their level of cognitive flexibility. This suggests that playing games or increased use of a mouse could not have been the main factor behind the transfer effects that we found. For the RAVLT, letter fluency, category fluency with- and without switch condition, and Raven Progressive Matrices, we used alternate assessment forms. Dev. Front. doi: 10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2011.02.013, Mahncke, H. W., Connor, B. 26, 874–890. We expected differences between conditions to be smaller, yet in the same direction, on performance of other domains. We created a randomized controlled trial in which we evaluated the effects of an adaptive computerized cognitive flexibility training. Res. Social and emotional aging. Conclusion. As most of our training tasks included fast paced, timed games, we were interested to see whether the training would generalize to measures of processing speed. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0121651. 34, 660–669. Subsequently, all subjects received login information for a lifetime account on the training website. Neurosci. Some only use a passive control condition, or none at all. B., Appelman, J., Ahsanuddin, O. N., Hardy, J. L., Wood, R. A., et al. Cognitive flexibility training manages responses to social conflict. The scale consists of eight items, with scores ranging from 8 to 56. doi: 10.1080/13803390490510680, Foroughi, C. K., Monfort, S. S., Paczynski, M., McKnight, P. E., and Greenwood, P. M. (2016). (1997). Our parallel study with recovering stroke patients (van de Ven et al., 2017), which included a wait list condition, suggests that such factors may well have overshadowed the beneficial effect of the training itself and that training effects on cognition could be rather small. 22, 366–377. Measures of these constructs have been added to our battery of transfer tasks. Cognitive flexibility is the human ability to adapt the cognitive processing strategies to face new and unex-pected conditions in the environment (Cañas et al. Vercoulen, J. H. M. M., Bazelmans, E., Swanink, C. M. A., Fennis, J. F. M., Galama, J. M. D., Jongen, P. J. H., et al. Effectiveness of the training on a larger scale was assessed by using neuropsychological tests from eight cognitive domains: task switching, psychomotor speed, processing speed, planning, reasoning, working memory, long term memory, and verbal fluency. Exercising your brain: a review of human brain plasticity and training-induced learning. JMIR Serious Games. Contact us for more information. Children have to switch mental gears when moving from one subject to another, abandon one way of thinking about a problem when it does not lead to a solution and adopt another way of thinking, and even give up erroneous information to accept new and correct information. 15, 109–119. The effects of the flexibility training were estimated using pre- and post-measures on an extensive battery of computer tasks, neuropsychological paper-and-pen tests and computerized versions of these tests. Besides improvements on the training, we found significant time effects on multiple transfer tasks in all three groups that likely reflected retest effects. Memory enhancement in healthy older adults using a brain plasticity-based training program: a randomized, controlled study. Cognitive control requires the ability to resist the impulse to perseverate and keep thinking in a previously active but no longer appropriate manner. In response to the training performed, sailors augmented their ability to adjust to changing task demands (improved cognitive flexibility), which was reflected by the increased number of correct answers in unpredictable task switching and decreased task duration in predictable task switching tests. This study was carried out in accordance with the recommendations of the guidelines formulated by the Ethics Review Board of the Faculty of Social and Behavioral Sciences, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands, with written informed consent from all subjects. 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